H2O Innovation – Reverse Osmosis for removal of nitrates, dissolved organics, dissolved organics, sulfate, uranium and hardness. RO uses a semi-permeable membrane to separate and remove dissolved solids, organics, pyrogens, submicron collodial matter, viruses, and bacteria from water. The process is called “Reverse” Osmosis since it requires pressure to force pure water across a membrane, leaving the impurities behind. Reverse Osmosis is capable of removing 95 – 99% of the total dissolved solids (TDS) and 99% of all bacteria, thus providing safe, pure water. Applications include surface water, ground water (under influence) and water reuse.
H2O Innovation has been involved in supplying nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) systems for municipal and industrial applications since the 1990s/ NF/RO applications are used to remove unwanted salts and contaminants from a feed water stream. It is commonly used in drinking water, water reuse and desalination applications. Systems are designed to achieve removal of TDS, TOC, alkalinity, sodium, chloride, phosphate, iron, manganese, arsenic, boron and other salts or contaminants based on membrane projections which simulate the rejection of these contaminants by the NF/RO membrane.
Very similar in appearances, NF and RO spiral wound elements are made with a flat sheet of semi-permeable polyamide membrane sandwiched with a permeate and feed spacer and then rolled around a perforated core tube. Nanofiltration or softening membranes have a pore size around 0.001 microns and are usually operated at pressures between 50 to 100 psi. Because of its pore size, NF is typically used on feed sources that have low total dissolved solids (TDS), but significant hardness, iron, manganese and/or total organic carbon (TOC). Nanofiltration membranes typically have a rejection of less than 85% of sodium chloride. Reverse osmosis membranes have smaller pores, in the range of 0.0001 microns and have typical operating pressures ranging from 125 to 1000 psi making this process remarkably efficient. With pores this small and such high operating pressures, some RO membranes can reject everything found in water other than water itself, thus producing nearly pure water. Some applications even require the reintroduction of minerals in the treated waterto inhibit the corrosion of the equipment downstream of the RO system. RO
membranes typically have a sodium chloride rejection greater than 99.5%.
Unlike spiral wound membranes whose sizes and membrane filtration areas have been standardized across all or most membrane suppliers, UF modules can differ from one supplier to another in the matter of their dimensions, their process connections, and their operating sequences. Therefore, a typical UF system fitted with a specific brand and model of UF modules must conserve the same brand and model throughout its life span. This imposes unnecessary limitations to the system’s owner when purchasing new modules for its system. H2O Innovation has developed a flexible ultrafiltration skid to accommodate several types of modules and allow owners and engineers to take advantage of amuch wider membrane spectrum. The FiberFlexTM is an open source equipment that simplifies membrane purchases and change overs.